Dairy Farm Guidelines
- It is eco-friendly and does not cause environmental pollution as compared to other industries.
- Requirement of skilled labour is relatively less.
- Dairy product market is active round the year.
- Minimum investment on inventory. (No need to stock raw materials in huge quantities.)
- Entire establishment can be shifted to a new location (if need arises e.g. Fire, Floods etc.)
- One can insure animals.
- Less energy requirement. Biogas plant fed with cow dung can supply maximum energy to meet farms day to day requirement. Decomposed slurry of such plant can also be effectively used as organic manure.
- Breeding of animals and getting expected milk yield is a biological phenomenon, which depends upon various factors.
- Dairy farming besides good planning requires hardworking, reliable and alert manager. In
- India, usually persons from the family take the responsibility.
- Inadequate management of feeding, herd health and lack of quality control in various stage of production can cause major loss affecting the profitability of the entire venture.
Opportunities for training are available with most of the:
- Agricultural/Veterinary Universities of various states
- Krishi Vigyan Kendras
- State Department of Animal Husbandry
- You can also choose to inquire with National level organization like: National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI) Karnal (Haryana) - For training on rearing of dairy animals and manufacture of milk products.
Good quality cows are available in the market and it cost around Rs.1200 to Rs.1500 per liter of milk production per day.
(e.g. Cost of a cow producing 10 liter of Milk per day will be between Rs.12, 000 to Rs.15, 000). If proper care is given, Cows breed regularly giving one calf every 13-14 month interval.
They are more docile and can be handled easily. Good milk yielding cross breeds (Holstein and Jersey crosses) has well adapted to Kashmiri climate.
The fat percentage of cow's milk varies from 3-5.5% and is lower than Buffaloes.
In India, we have good buffalo breeds like Murrah and Mehsana, which are suitable for commercial dairy farm.
Buffalo milk has more demand for making butter and butter oil (Ghee), as fat percentage in milk is higher than cow.
Buffalo milk is also preferred for making tea, a welcoming drink in common Indian household. Buffaloes can be maintained on more fibrous crop residues, hence scope for reducing feed cost.
Buffaloes largely mature late and give birth to calves at 16 to 18 months interval.
Male calves fetch little value.
Buffaloes need cooling facility e.g. Wallowing tank or showers / foggers with fan.
- The exotic breeds of cattle are Holstein Friesian, Jersey and Brown Swiss.
- Popular buffalo milch breeds are Murrah, Surti, Mehasani, Jaffrabadi, and Nali - Ravi and Badhawari.
- The indigenous milch breeds of cattle are Gir, Sahiwal, Red Sindhi and Tharparkar. Economic life of buffaloes is 5-6 lactation and that of Crossbreed cows is 6-7 lactation.
Besides, you will also need:
- One room 10'' x 10'' for keeping implements.
- One room 10''x 12'' for milk storage
- Office cum living room of suitable size.
- Water tank capable of storing minimum 2000 liters
- Bore well with capacity to fill water tank in 1 hr